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>> Transglutaminases

Transglutaminases (TGases), also named protein-glutamine γ-glutamyltransferases, are enzymes belonging to the proteases class that catalyze Ca2+-dependent post-translational modifications of proteins by introducing protein protein cross-links, amine incorporation, and site-specific deamidation.

TGases are involved in diverse physiological and physiopathological processes, such as neurodegenerative diseases, blood coagulation disorders, bone tissue healing, growth regulation, cell differentiation, and tissue stabilization. TGases are also considered to play an important role in allergies prevention.

  • Microbial Transglutaminase

TGases are widely distributed in nature, being found in mammalian, plants, microorganisms, etc. Since its isolation from streptomyces mobaraensis in 1989, TGase production has been discovered in a variety of other microorganisms. Compared to the eukaryotic TGases, bacterial TGases (BTG or synonymous MTG for microbial transglutaminase) possess obvious advantages such as small size, cofactor independency, improved performance, high stability, and low deamination activity. Therefore, they have become one of the most frequently used tools for site-specific bioconjugation.

In biotechnology and pharmaceutical research, the ability of MTG to catalyze protein cross-linkage is used to produce stable conjugates composed of a variety of functional biomolecules and to immobilize desired payloads onto different surfaces. In biotechnological application, the usage of highly purified MTG is recommended to avoid the disturbing side-reactions of impurities.

In addition, MTG are applied in food industry as food additives and in wool textiles as biopolymers. Convenient MTG assay kits are developed for quality control in industry and academia.

  • Mammalian Transglutaminase

In mammals, nine isoenzymes of the TGase family have been identified at the genomic level with a good structural homology. The best characterized enzymes include:

TGase 1, also known as keratinocyte transglutaminase, is primarily expressed in epithelial tissues in membrane-bound and soluble forms and is activated by proteolysis upon terminal differentiation of keratinocytes.

Class Cat. No. Product Name Source Inquiry
TGase 1 (Human) T009 Human keratinocyte transglutaminase E. coli Inquiry >
T035 Human keratinocyte transglutaminase Insect cells Inquiry >

TGase 2, also known as tissue transglutaminase, is most comprehensively studied and ubiquitous transglutaminase. TGase 2 has both catalytic as well as noncatalytic functions and is associated with several diseases, among which it is best known for its association with celiac disease.

Class Cat. No. Product Name Source Inquiry
TGase 2 (Human) T002 Human tissue transglutaminase E. coli Inquiry >
T018 Inactive human tissue transglutaminase E. coli Inquiry >
T022 Human tissue transglutaminase Insect cells Inquiry >
T034 Human tissue transglutaminase HEK293F cells Inquiry >
T067 Endotoxin free human tissue transglutaminase Insect cells Inquiry >
T106 Biotinylated human tissue Transglutaminase E. coli Inquiry >
T117 Biotinylated inactive hTG2 (Cys277Ser) E. coli Inquiry >
T123 Biotinylated human tissue Transglutaminase HEK293F cells Inquiry >
T148 Biotinylated human Open tTGTM Insect cells Inquiry >
T167 Short human tissue transglutaminase, aa 1-465 E. coli Inquiry >
T168 Human tissue transglutaminase, C230A mutant E. coli Inquiry >
T169 Human tissue transglutaminase, R580A mutant E. coli Inquiry >
T173 Human tissue transglutaminase, R116C mutant Inquiry >
TGase 2 (Animal) T006 Guinea pig liver transglutaminase Guinea pig Inquiry >
T039 Guinea pig liver transglutaminase E. coli Inquiry >
T038 Rat tissue transglutaminase E. coli Inquiry >
T040 Mouse tissue transglutaminase E. coli Inquiry >
T156 Biotinylated mouse tissue transglutaminase E. coli Inquiry >
T150 Biotinylated mouse open TG2 E. coli Inquiry >
T072 Dog tissue transglutaminase Insect cells Inquiry >
T139 Rabbit tissue transglutaminase E. coli Inquiry >
T108 Cynomolgus tissue transglutaminase HEK293F cells Inquiry >
T160 Biotinylated cynomolgus tissue transglutaminase HEK293F cells Inquiry >
T159 Pig tissue transglutaminase Inquiry >
T184 Cat tissue transglutaminase E. coli Inquiry >

TGase 3, also named epidermal transglutaminase, is expressed as an inactive zymogen that must undergo proteolytic processing to be activated. Like TGase 1, TGase 3 is also involved in the terminal differentiation of the keratinocyte.

TGase 4 is exclusively expressed in the prostate and is involved in semen coagulation, essential for fertility in rodents.

TGase 5 is expressed in the epidermal granular cells, where it cross-links a variety of structural proteins in the terminal differentiation of the epidermis to form the cornified cell envelope.

TGase 6 encoded by the TGM6 gene is associated with central nervous system development and motor function.

Class Cat. No. Product Name Source Inquiry
TGase 4 T042 Human prostate Transglutaminase E. coli Inquiry >
TGase 5 T086 Human Transglutaminase 5 E. coli Inquiry >
TGase 6 T021 Human neuronal transglutaminase Insect cells Inquiry >
T141 Biotinylated human neuronal transglutaminase Insect cells Inquiry >
T146 Mouse neuronal transglutaminase Inquiry >
TGase 7 T011 Human transglutaminase 7 E. coli Inquiry >
  • Human Factor XIII

Factor XIII, also known as fibrin stabilizing factor, is one of the best-known TGases in human blood. Factor XIII is a key clotting factor in the coagulation cascade known for forming cross-links of fibrin molecules and stabilizing fibrin polymers to help stop the bleeding. Deficiency of Factor XIII causes hemostatic problems (even life-threatening bleeding), poor wound healing, and tissue repair. Recombination Factor XIII has been developed as the substitutive therapy at rare genetic defects of blood coagulation.

Factor XIII is a protein tetrameric complex of A and B subunits. The A subunit (FXIII-A) is a transglutaminase zymogen. The B subunit (FXIII-B) is an inhibitory glycoprotein with no enzymatic function that protects the catalytic A subunits from clearance.

Category Cat. No. Product Name Inquiry
Factor XIII-A2 T027 Human blood coagulation Factor XIII-A2 Inquiry >
T063 Human blood coagulation Factor XIII-A2, Val34Leu-mutant Inquiry >
T070 Human Factor XIIIa, Thrombin activated Inquiry >
T127 Biotinylated human blood coagulation Factor XIII Inquiry >
T197 Coagulation factor XIII Inquiry >
T161 Cynomolgus blood coagulation Factor XIII-A2 Inquiry >
T061 Mouse blood coagulation Factor XIII-A2 Inquiry >
T062 Dog blood coagulation Factor XIII-A2 Inquiry >
T065 Rat blood coagulation Factor XIII-A2 Inquiry >
T066 Pig blood coagulation Factor XIII-A2 Inquiry >
T142 Biotinylated mouse blood coagulation Factor XIII-A2 Inquiry >
T152 Rabbit blood coagulation Factor XIII-A2 Inquiry >
Factor XIII-B2 T050 Human blood coagulation Factor XIII B subunit Inquiry >
Factor XIII activation peptide A125 Factor XIII activation peptide (AP-FXIII) Inquiry >
T187 Factor XIII activation peptide, recombinant Inquiry >
FXIII-Inhibitors A108 Ac-(D)-Asp-MA-Nle-Nle-Leu-Pro-Trp-Pro-OH, "ZED1301" Inquiry >
D004 1,3-Dimethyl-4,5-diphenyl-2-[(2-oxopropyl)thio]imidazolium trifluorosulfonic acid salt Inquiry >
T087 Tridegin Inquiry >
T101 1,3,4,5-Tetramethyl-2-[(2-oxopropyl)thio]imidazolium chloride Inquiry >
Fibrin aggregation and clotting G101 Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro-amide Inquiry >
T056 Human alpha thrombin, highly active Inquiry >
T222 Human Alpha Thrombin, recombinant Inquiry >
Fibrin clot degradation P009 human Pro-Glu-Plasminogen, recombinant Inquiry >
P012 human Plasmin, recombinant Inquiry >
P016 Tissue Plasminogen Activator, t-PA Inquiry >
P014 Urokinase Inquiry >
P015 Streptokinase Inquiry >
FXIII Activity Assays A101 FXIII-Assay Substance Inquiry >
F001 FXIII-Assay Kit Inquiry >

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