Nanodiamonds (NDs) can be synthesized by different approaches, which produce particles of a few nanometers to microns in size. The most popular synthetic strategies to produce NDs comprise detonation, high pressure-high temperature (HPHT) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) are monodisperse diamond particles produced in large scale by exploding appropriate precursors, with a relatively small crystalline size. The size of primary particles is about 5 nm by detonation synthesis. The primary particles are consolidated into larger aggregates formed during synthesis and purification. DNDs contain a wide variety of surface functional groups following extraction from detonation soot. As-produced DND particles are hydrophilic and can be chemically functionalized for specific applications. Depending on the purification method, as-produced DNDs have either positive or negative zeta potential.
In biomedical applications, DNDs of small particle size are commonly chosen in drug delivery systems owing to their low cost, chemical inertia, and ability to overcome multidrug resistance. In addition, their high specific surface area and small monodisperse size allow higher release rates and good therapeutic in vivo efficacy via targeting molecules such as polymers, peptides, and liposomes. The alterable surface and biocompatibility of DNDs render them suitable drug carriers protecting against protein adhesion and immune responses, leading to longer circulation time in the body. In addition, DNDs can be used for catalyst support, battery additives, electroplating, and polishing.
Amerigo Scientific offers DND suspensions in a variety of particle sizes from the fully deagglomerated monodisperse 4-5 nm primary particles to 200 nm tight agglomerates of primary particles.
5 nm DND Suspensions
10-80 nm DND Suspensions
The primary particles formed in the detonation have a characteristic size of about 5 nm and can be isolated from the large tight aggregates formed during synthesis and purification. Owing to their small size and rich surface chemistry, 5 nm nanodiamond particles are stabilized in many solvent systems. Amerigo Scientific offers 5 nm DNDs as colloidal suspensions in water or solvents including polyalphaolefin (PAO) synthetic oil, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol (EG), N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP), and glycerol (Gly). Particles with positive and negative (carboxylated) zeta potential are available.
|5 nm ND Suspension Positive Zeta Potential 1 wt. %||100 mL; 500 mL; 1000 mL||-|
|5 nm ND Suspension Negative Zeta Potential 1 wt. %||100 mL; 500 mL; 1000 mL||-|
|5 nm ND in Ethylene glycol 1 wt. %||100 mL||EG|
|5 nm ND in Polyolefin 1 wt. %||100 mL||PAO|
|5 nm ND in N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone 1 wt. %||100 mL||NMP|
|5 nm ND in Dimethyl sulfoxide 1 wt. %||100 mL||DMSO|
|5 nm ND in Glycerol 1 wt. %||100 mL||Gly|
DNDs with particle sizes greater than 5 nm do not exist as monolithic diamond particles, which is an important distinction from other nano materials and even other types of NDs (such as NDs synthesized from HPHT). These large-sized DNDs exist as dense, semi-porous clusters composed of 5 nm primary particles. Amerigo Scientific offers 10 to 50 nm aggregates of carboxylated DND (negatively charged with zeta potential -45 mV) as well as 80 nm positively charged DNDs with polyfunctional groups (with zeta potential +40 mV). All these products are available as suspensions in water.
|Product Name||Size||Particle Size|
|10 nm Carboxylated ND Suspension 1 wt. %||100 mL; 500 mL; 1000 mL||10-15 nm|
|15 nm Carboxylated ND Suspension 1 wt. %||500 mL; 1000 mL||15-20 nm|
|20 nm Carboxylated ND Suspension 1 wt. %||500 mL; 1000 mL||20-30 nm|
|30 nm Carboxylated ND Suspension 1 wt. %||500 mL; 1000 mL||30-40 nm|
|50 nm Carboxylated ND Suspension 1 wt. %||500 mL; 1000 mL||50-60 nm|
|80 nm Positive Zeta DND Suspension 5 wt. %||100 mL||70-80 nm|
Monodispersed 5 nm DND particles and 10-80 nm DND suspensions can be used for catalyst support, battery additives, electroplating, and polishing. In addition, monodispersed 5 nm DND offer a robust platform for the delivery of molecules or drugs, due to their small monodisperse size, extremely high surface area, spherical shape, and chemical inertia.
Raw DND powders have low colloidal stability in DI water without additional treatment. The particles are polydisperse and additional larger sizes fractions are also present. Raw DND powders are intended for users experienced with DNDs. Amerigo Scientific provide raw DND powders with either negative or positive zeta potential (when dispersed in DI water). The sign of zeta potential of DND is important in applications where electrostatic interactions are significant (e.g., adsorption of charged species can occur). Depending on the applications, customers may apply additional treatments to the raw DND powder, such as purification with acid, specific surface functionalization, and fractionation into narrow and smaller particle fractions.
|Categories||Product Name||Size||Particle Size|
|Positively Charged Raw DND Powders||170 nm Raw DND, +15 mV Zeta, 1.7 % ash||50 g||170 nm|
|230 nm Raw DND, +15 mV Zeta, 1.7 % ash||50 g||230 nm|
|Negatively Charged Raw DND Powders||140 nm Raw DND -15 mV, Zeta 2.0%, ash||10g; 100 g; 1 kg||140 nm|
Amerigo Scientific also provides powders additionally purified from metal impurities and functionalized with specific surface groups.
|Categories||Product Name||Size||Particle Size|
|Carboxylated DND Powders||30 nm Carboxylated DND||3 g||30-35 nm|
|60 nm Carboxylated DND||5 g||60-80 nm|
|190 nm Carboxylated DND, -40mV Zeta Potential||10 g; 50 g||190 nm|
|Hydroxylated DND Powders||30 nm Hydroxylated DND||2 g||30-35 nm|
|Hydrophobic DND Powders||80 nm Hydrophobic DND with Hexane||1 g||80-90 nm|
|80 nm Hydrophobic DND with Dodecane||1 g||80-90 nm|
|80 nm Hydrophobic DND with Octadecane||1 g||80-90 nm|
DND powders can be used for polymer coatings, paints, electroplated metal coatings, robust catalyst support, battery additives for improved performance, and polishing. The superior hardness and chemical resistance of DNDs can improve the mechanical and chemical properties of coatings and paints, making coatings and paints scratch resistance, reduce wear and friction, corrosion resistance, and increase the adhesion to the substrate. Functionalized DNDs are designed to support customers with more specific applications where the interphase between nanodiamonds and a solvent or a matrix in composites plays an important role.
|ND-C18 (Octadecyl)||ND-C12 (Dodecyl)||ND-C8 (Octyl)||ND-C4 (Butyl)|
* Annotation: Green color: Dispersable; Red color: Not Dispersable; White color: Not Tested
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