Plant biology is a broad, multidisciplinary subject with significant implications for humanity's efforts to combat the consequences of global warming, climate change, pollution, and population growth. A deep of plant physiology can help optimize agricultural practices, develop new crop varieties, or implement biotechnology innovations in agriculture. Plant biology can be divided into two main categories: basic research (fundamental research) and applied plant science. Applied plant science builds on basic scientific discoveries to develop cutting-edge technologies through innovation. The basic areas of plant biology include plant anatomy, plant morphology and evolution, plant physiology, and plant molecular and cell biology. Applied plant science encompasses more categories including crops, horticulture, postharvest physiology, plant pathology and plant breeding, and genetic modification of crops, as well as broader areas of investigation such as plants and the environment, forestry, sustainability and production systems, and conservation biology of crop plants.
The research topics in plant biology include the study of plant structure, growth and differentiation, reproduction, biochemistry and primary metabolism, chemical products, development, disease, evolutionary relationships, systematics, and plant taxonomy. Plant media provide plant support by containing micro- and macronutrients, vitamins, organic supplements, and plant growth regulators necessary for plant growth. The growth characteristics of plants can be altered in several ways, such as genetic engineering and the use of growth regulators. Genes of interest can be integrated into plant tissues by agrobacterium-mediated transformation or other methods. Plant growth regulators are plant hormones that modify plant growth, such as the common ethylene, abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinins, and gibberellins. These plant growth regulators have different effects on plants, including stimulating stem elongation, root and shoot growth, cell elongation, and cell division. Plant pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, and parasitic higher plants cause plant diseases that affect plant growth with different symptoms such as increased respiration, cell disintegration or collapse, wilting, abnormal cell division, etc. Among these pathogens, fungi are a common source of cell culture contamination due to their ubiquitous distribution in the environment and laboratory facilities. The use of antifungal agents can prevent the rapid growth of fungi in nutrient-rich media and ensure the growth and reproduction of plant cells in vitro. Herbicides are pesticides used to kill unwanted plants such as parasitic plants. Some herbicides are selective, killing unwanted plants while allowing growth of desired plants. Herbicide and antibiotic resistance genes are the most common selective marker genes for plant transformation in genetic engineering.
Plant biology and plant science are of great significance. Amerigo Scientific offers a wide range of products including low-toxicity antimicrobials, growth regulators, herbicides, media supplements, and more, facilitating the exploration of new frontiers in plant biology.
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