Adipose tissue is a specialized connective tissue composed of adipocytes, pre-adipocytes, stromal vascular fraction (SVF), endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and many other cells. As the main component of adipose tissue, adipocytes not only function as lipid storage compartments but also produce various endocrine proteins to regulate the whole-body metabolic homeostasis. These proteins are collectively known as adipokines including leptin, adiponectin, and pro-inflammatory mediators (such as interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α).
Adipose tissue is considered an active endocrine tissue due to its involvement in cell function regulation. Adipose tissue influences the response of a variety of tissues including the liver, hypothalamus, skeletal muscle, immune system, and others. Adipose tissue is deeply involved with other organs and contributes to the development of diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, osteoarthritis, and their associated comorbidities. Thus, the dynamic role of adipose tissue deserves more attention.
Amerigo Scientific offers 3D adipocyte microphysiological systems that can be used for drug safety and efficacy studies, as well as human-derived hydrogel that can be applied in various organ-on-a-chip models. We also offer the highest quality mesenchymal stem cells and culture reagents on the market. Our fat-on-a-chip systems and supporting products offer researchers a new, more accurate way of modeling human fat tissue in vitro.
Based on techniques that simulate the physiological microenvironment of tissues and diseases in vitro, innovative and effective treatments and diagnostic tools can be developed to improve personalized medicine. Scientists have developed 3D models representing the liver, brain, skin, lung, etc. Engineering 3D hydrogels suitable for disease modeling become widely desired by the scientific community.
Amerigo Scientific offers an innovative human derived 3D culture scaffold, ObaGel®, designed to overcome the translational barrier between animal models and clinical response. ObaGel® enables researchers to use all human derived products in their research and better replicate in vivo response in vitro.
|Source||Human derived||Animal derived|
|Integration into Workflow||Easily manipulated||Overly complex methods required|
|Cell Recovery||Cell recovery consistently above 90% in 3D systems||Inconsistent, <90%|
|Visualization||Highly transparent, easy to image||Often difficult to characterize structure, with problems of opacity and autofluorescence|
|Spheroid Culture||Self-assembly, no additional methods required||a method of constructing spheroid culture required|
When cultured in ObaGel®, cells remodel the polymerized matrix and form mature fat cells with spaces that contain lipid droplets. These images below are cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) images of ObaGel® alone (left) and seeded with stromal vascular fraction cells (right).
Before Seeding with ObaGel®
After Seeding with ObaGel®
|ObaVate™||The activation agent for ObaGel™|
|ObaGel® & ObaVate™ Bundle||The bundle of ObaGel® and ObaVate™|
|ObaZolve™||For recovery of cells from an ObaGel® 3D Culture|
|ObaFlow™||For flow cytometry analysis of cells cultured in ObaGel™|
Modeling tissue microenvironment and diseases with 3D hydrogels represents an important, cost-effective advancement for the study of diseases and cell interactions in specific tissue types. ObaCell® is the first commercially available system for adipose tissue engineering and it can provide an accurate model that closely resembles the microenvironment of adipose tissue in the human body. ObaCell® can be used to create both white adipose-on-a-chip (WAT-on-a-chip) and brown adipose-on-a-chip (BAT-on-a-chip).
ObaCell® is intended as a tool for disease modeling and drug screening, and it could be so much more as a plug-and-play system that can work with other organ-on-a-chip models. Compared to 2D models, characterization of ObaCell® has demonstrated enhanced cell proliferation, maintenance of cellular heterogeneity, spheroid induction, robust adipogenic differentiation, and adipose tissue functionality (adipokine secretion, glucose uptake, lipolysis). Thus, as an adipose-on-a-chip model, ObaCell® allows researchers to investigate the short or long-term effects of drug treatments by analyzing endpoints, including immune response, gene expression, protein/adipokine expression, glucose uptake, lipolysis, cell/tissue morphology, etc.
ObaCell® comes as a kit comprising human-derived hydrogel ObaGel™, human stromal vascular cells or human adipose derived stromal/stem cells, and culture media. ObaCell® is also available as a 96-well plate of live, fully differentiated cells.
|ObaCell® ASC Adipose-on-a-Chip||The kit comprises ObaGel®, ObaVate™, ObaZolve™, 1 vial of 1 million adipose-derived stem cells, stromal maintenance media for 3D culture, and adipogenic differentiation media for white adipose tissue (WAT) or brown adipose tissue (BAT).|
|ObaCell® Adipose-on-a-Chip Live Plate||The plate is available in a 96-well plate format and is compatible with many endpoint assays and imaging techniques.|
|ObaCell® SVF Adipose-on-a-Chip||The SVF kit can be used to model the human stromal vascular fraction containing immune cells, vascular cells, stem cells, and preadipocytes.|
Adipose tissue–derived stem cells (ADSCs) are one of the most advantageous adult stem cells in cell therapy and tissue engineering. Due to its subcutaneous location, adipose tissue is relatively easily accessible without significant donor site morbidity. ADSCs have been reported to undergo senescence later than bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs), and have higher proliferative capacity than BMMSCs. ADSCs are also more active in autocrine production of some growth factors and immunomodulators than other types of stem cells.
Amerigo Scientific offers human adult adipose derived stromal/stem cells, stromal vascular fraction cells and other stem cells used in tissue engineering and disease modeling. Most products come with detailed demographic information including gender, age, BMI, and tissue harvest location. In addition, cell viability, immunophenotype, differentiation profile and CFU-F data are available upon request.
|Human Adipose-Derived Stromal/Stem Cells||
We offer 3D culture media to support the establishment and maintenance of ObaCell® cultures. These supporting culture media are also included in ObaCell® kits.
|AdipoQual3D™||Supporting the maintenance of ObaCell® cultures prior to adipogenesis induction|
|StromaQual3D™||Supporting the differentiation of SVF or ASC into mature adipocytes and supporting the maintenance of the differentiated adipose-on-a-chip model throughout the experimental process|