Perovskite is a naturally occurring mineral of calcium titanate with a chemical formula of CaTiO3, which was named in honor of the Russian mineralogist Lev Perovski. Materials with the same crystal structure as CaTiO3 are usually referred to as perovskite materials. These perovskites typically have a cubic or tetragonal crystal structure with a general formula of ABX3, where A represents monovalent organic or inorganic cations, B stands for a metal center, while X denotes a halide anion. Smaller transition metal ions on the B site reside in corner-sharing octahedra of X anions, and larger A-site cations have 12-fold coordination with X. A large number of perovskite materials can be combined through easily modified formulations, such as hybrid organic-inorganic and all-inorganic perovskites. Diverse perovskite materials exhibit ferroelectricity, superconductivity, and magnetoresistance. Metal halide perovskites possess unique physical and chemical properties and tunable photoelectric properties, such as high absorption coefficients, high charge-carrier mobilities, long minority carrier diffusion lengths, and low trap densities. These impressive properties make them an excellent choice as materials for solar cells, photodetectors, catalysts and light emitters. Extensive research on metal halide perovskites has gained remarkable momentum around the world and a new generation of solution-treated solar cells has emerged. Within a decade, the power conversion efficiency of these devices was optimized. However, the synthesis of perovskite and the manufacture of solar cells involve the use of hazardous organic solvents.
Amerigo Scientific offers perovskites that are synthesized using a solvent-free-solid-state manufacturing process. This process avoids the use of harmful organic solvents and ensures repeatability and scalability of solvent-free synthesis, as well as very high phase purity of products. The dry powder reaction eliminates the formation of perovskite-solvent intermediates in coordinated solvents, thereby preventing the intermediates from retarding the nucleation and growth of perovskite crystals. The solvent-free synthesis method can significantly improve the parameters of perovskite solar cells. Devices made using inks made from dry perovskite exhibit reduced I-V hysteretic behavior, increased open-circuit voltage values (VOC), and considerable thermal stability due to the higher crystallinity of the solvent-free solid-state perovskites. In addition, the use of solvent-free synthesis methods ensures complete control of reaction stoichiometry to prevent the presence of starting materials. Compositional engineering can be used to design the desired products and tune their optoelectronic properties.
Our top-notch quality perovskite materials are manufactured by a waste-free and solvent-free process to meet the requirements of the Green Chemistry Convention and environmental friendliness. One of the most important characteristics of semiconductors is the band gap. Amerigo Scientific offers bromide and iodide hybrid and all-inorganic perovskites with bandgap ranging from 1.5 to 2.9 eV, including cesium lead bromide (CsPbBr3), formamidinium lead bromide (FAPbBr3), guanidinium lead iodide (GuaPbI3), methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3), and methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3).
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