3D Tissue Engineering

Tissue engineering combines elements of biology, medicine, materials engineering, and mechanics, with the basic aim of developing methods to support the regeneration of damaged tissues and organs, particularly those considered non-regenerative. Tissue engineering models employ the use of 3D matrices to culture cells and create tissues that mimic morphology and function that occur naturally in vivo. These tissue mimetics can be used in studies of disease propagation and progression, drug discovery, compound screening, and tissue repair and replacement.

Amerigo Scientific provides 3D tissue engineering services to develop functional in vitro 3D tissue models for simulating disease states and high-throughput molecular screening. We can develop and optimize customized 3D models based on our tissue engineering platform for in vitro studies such as wound healing and anti-aging.

Benefits of Our 3D Tissue Engineering Platform

Amerigo Scientific provides 3D model development and validation services that drive innovation to meet research needs.

  • Gel-free 3D models allow cells to produce and regulate extracellular matrix (ECM).
  • Non-animal-derived cells, including iPSC-derived lineages, can be used to develop fully humanized models.
  • A variety of 3D disease models can be developed, such as atopic dermatitis, osteoarthritis, and innervated skin.
  • Autologous assays can be achieved with the use of cells or tissues obtained from the same individual.
  • High-throughput screening is available in a 96-well format.
  • RNA extraction, RT-PCR, and RNA sequencing analysis are performed.

Advanced 3D Bioprinting Technology

Expertise in additive manufacturing and 3D printing techniques, together with a deep understanding of 3D tissue models, allows us to explore the construction of biological tissues for in vitro applications by bioprinting various cell types. By exploiting the speed, precision, and selective deposition of drop-on-demand based bioprinting, we can create geometrically complex constructs that are difficult to achieve with standard tissue culture techniques.

Based on the platform, primary human skin cells and human mesenchymal stem cells have been successfully printed to develop Skimune® 3D and Skimune® OA, respectively. Skimune® OA is osteoarthritis model constructed from mature chondrocytes and osteoblasts.

Skimune® 3D Human Skin Model

Skimune® 3D is a full-thickness 3D autologous skin equivalent model that can be used as an alternative to animal models. Cells within Skimune® 3D can maintain their in vivo morphology, behavior and response as in vivo. The Skimune®3D model is constructed from dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes derived from the same healthy donor tissue, providing an autologous system for the safety testing of drugs, chemicals, and cosmetics.

Skimune® 3D human skin model showing markers that indicate healthy skinFigure 1. Skimune® 3D human skin model showing markers that indicate healthy skin

3D Osteochondral Model

3D Osteochondral Model, constructed from the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into mature chondrocytes and osteocytes, can be developed to mimic the disease state of cartilage damage.

3D Innervated Skin Model

3D Innervated Skin Model is a 96-well high-throughput platform consisting of neurons and Schwann cells that can be used to detect neuronal irritants and toxins or to evaluate the efficacy of topical pain relievers.

Skimune® AD Model

Skimune® AD is a human explant model induced to express an atopic dermatitis (AD) phenotype by co-culturing with autologous immune cells and inflammatory cytokines. Similar to that observed in clinical patient samples, AD phenotypic markers such as filaggrin and thymic stromal lymphoprotein (TSLP) were decreased and increased, respectively, in Skimune® AD model (Figure 2). These biomarkers were detected by immunohistochemistry and quantified using ELISA to demonstrate significant differences between stimulated tissue and unstimulated controls (Figure 3). Administration of hydrocortisone, a standard drug in the treatment of AD, was able to reverse the AD phenotype in Skimune® AD model (Figure 2).

H&E and immunostaining for TSLP in the controlFigure 2. H&E and immunostaining for TSLP in the control, AD-induced, 1% Hydrocortisone treated, and 0.05% Clobetasol Propionate treated groups

ELISA analysis of Filaggrin (FLG) and TSLPFigure 3. ELISA analysis of Filaggrin (FLG) and TSLP

Benefits of Skimune® AD

  • An alternative to human tissue that mimics the complexity of in vivo biology
  • No reliance on patient-derived samples
  • Reducing the effects caused by preexisting treatments

Skimune® Epi AD Model

The Skimune® Epi AD model is a 96-well plate high-throughput format with key phenotypic markers of AD that is well suited for large-scale screening. Skimune® Epi AD allows simultaneous screening of 100 compounds, significantly improving throughput compared to other commercially available models.

Skimune® Epi ADFigure 4. Skimune® Epi AD model

Applications of Skimune® Models

To assess the safety of cosmetics
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pharmaceuticals
UV Protection
To test UV exposure and damage
Relevant models:
3D Innervated Skin Model
Relevant models:
3D Osteochondral Model​
3D Innervated Skin Model
Relevant models:
Skimune® Epi
Immune Activation
To test adverse immune activation of compounds
To test the ability of the compound to irritate skin
To test the ability of protective agents to enhance the barrier layer in the skin model
Relevant models:
Relevant models:
3D Innervated Skin Model
Relevant models:
3D Innervated Skin Model

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