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    Adenoviruses (Ads) are icosahedral non-enveloped viruses that belong to the adenoviridae family, with a diameter of about 90 nm. The adenoviral genomes are linear, unsegmented, double-stranded DNA ranging from 26 to 45 kb in length. Research on Ads has focused on the development of effective gene delivery vectors, mainly because of their well-defined biological characteristics, genetic stability, high gene transduction efficiency, and ease of large-scale production. There are 57 human Ad serotypes, which differ in their tropism and are further divided into six subgroups, A-G. The viral capsid is composed of capsid proteins, core proteins, and cement proteins. The differences in viral capsids indicate the tropism of the different serotypes, which make it possible to generate many viral vectors for different needs.

    Ads are developed as replication-deficient vectors lacking essential viral genes, which are designed to provide high levels of expression of exogenous inserts with minimal expression of adenoviral proteins. The first generation of Ad vectors contain deletions in the E1 region and additional deletions in E3 region to increase transgene capacity. The second-generation Ad vectors lack more nonessential regions, such as E2 and E4 transcription units, to increase the capacity for foreign DNA. The third-generation gutted Ad vectors contain only viral sequences that are essential for DNA replication. These vectors have greater cloning capacity than the first- and second-generation Ad vectors. The insertion size of the first- and second-generation vectors is 8-12 kb, while gutted Ad vectors allow an insertion of up to 36 kb.

    Adenoviral vectors have significant advantages over other viral gene delivery systems. Ads are capable of infecting a wide range of cell types, and their infection is not dependent on active host cell division. In addition, high viral titers and high levels of gene expression can be obtained, which are important considerations for protein production techniques in mammalian cells. The development of gutted Ad vectors can circumvent anti-adenovirus vector immunity. In addition, Because Ad vectors do not integrate into the chromosomes of host cells, there is no risk that they will alter the genetic composition of the host. Ad vectors provide a versatile platform for the development of strategies to modify viral capsids to improve the targeting specificity of the virus. Amerigo Scientific offers a wide range of ready-to-package Ads that contain sequence-verified human ORFs with closed ends or fusion ends with V5 epitope tag or 6xHN tag. All ORFs are pre-cloned into a proprietary Ad production system and packaged into Ad virions.

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