Nanodiamond (ND) particles can be defined as diamond particles of any shape whose size is below 1 micrometer. Diamond is an outstanding material in many respects, and ND inherits most of the superior properties of bulk diamond and have superior properties of nano-materials. These properties include superior hardness, biocompatibility, optical properties and fluorescence, high thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity, chemical stability, and the resistance of ND to harsh environments. Small particle size is advantageous for many applications of NDs. In polymer matrix composites, a small size and spherical shape of NDs lead to a larger number of particles per unit of their mass and maximize the volume of the interphase in the composite. In biomedical applications, the small size facilitates ND penetration through narrow pores in biological structures. In general, the smaller the particle size, the higher the surface-to volume ratio. This increase in surface area is accompanied by a change in chemical potential and overall reactivity and could be beneficial for catalytic applications.
Detonation NDs (DNDs) are about 5 nm ND particles that produced by detonation synthesis. The nearly spherical diamond particles bear many different functional groups on the surface due to the termination of sp3 carbon dangling bonds in reactions with components of the environment. DNDs are commonly chosen in drug delivery systems owing to their high specific surface area, small monodisperse size, alterable surface, biocompatibility, chemical inertia, and low cost. Compared to other nanomaterials as contrast agents, NDs have recently emerged as a promising candidate. The small size, stable fluorescence, and high biocompatibility of NDs make them suitable for bioimaging applications. Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) with wider size distribution than DNDs, are principally shaped from expensive high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) diamond and grinding procedure, which confer them very stable defects. Their intrinsic fluorescence, originating from nitrogen-vacancy (N-V) color centers, and their good biostability render them ideal for tracking and imaging upon light excitation. FNDs can be fluorescent markers to monitor uptake efficiency, uptake pathways, and intracellular behavior. More, NDs are used in other applications such as chromatography, mass spectrometry, energy storage, composites, catalysis, etc. Boron-doped nanodiamonds which are conducting can be used in electroanalysis, electrochemical double-layer capacitors and batteries.
Amerigo Scientific offers cutting-edge ND products with unique features to meet the needs of different applications, such as FNDs for biological imaging, microscopy and sensing, NDs with single NV centers for quantum optics, boron doped NDs for microelectronics, DNDs for drug delivery research and catalyst support, etc. Many products are available in multiple particle size, NV content, specifications, and suspension or powder states.
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