Cancer is a disease in which some cells of the body grow uncontrollably and spread to other parts of the body. Cancer is a serious problem affecting the health of all human societies and can develop almost anywhere in the organism and can occur in almost every multicellular organism. Its variety, which includes the major inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity and the mutations in hundreds of different genes contributing to cancer, is a major challenge for its specific diagnosis and therapeutic efficacy. Further, cancer is generally not static and evolves and progresses over time accumulating new mutations.
The most striking feature of cancer cells is their unrestrained increase in number and dissemination to other tissues and organs. The other hallmarks of cancer include reduced growth suppression, immune suppression, immortalization, angiogenesis, anti-apoptosis, metabolism, genome instability, and chronic inflammation. Like many other diseases, cancer is triggered by changes in the activity of gene products. The initiating event of cell carcinogenesis is the aberrant expression of genes encoding products that acts in pathways that regulates cancer hallmark capabilities. Thus, mutations in the genome of a cell are the most dominant driver for a cell to become a cancer cell. The high metabolic flexibility and plasticity of cancer cells is well known. Many regions in growing tumor are hypoxic, leading to activation of hypoxic signaling networks that promote new capillary growth and provide the necessary building blocks for cell growth. In addition, cancer cells can stimulate each other in a mutual paracrine manner. This type of cooperation appears to be most important in a premalignant lesion and during early progression within the cancer stem cell niche. Metabolic symbiosis can be established between tumor cells to provide each other with required nutrients. More commonly, cancer cells form conditions around normal cells to produce molecules that support tumor cell survival, reproduction, and spread.
Cancer research is important to shed new light on the diversity, individuality, and complexity of the disease, which allow develop more targeted treatments to diminish the enormous human and economic toll of cancer. Cancer research can be divided into basic research, translational research, clinical research, and epidemiological research. Basic research in cancer is the study of animals, cells, molecules, or genes to obtain new knowledge about cellular and molecular changes that occur naturally or during the development of cancer. Translational cancer research aims to accelerate the application of laboratory findings to clinical practice. A deep and broad understanding of the biological processes of cancer initiation, growth, and spread facilitates the development of more accurate diagnosis, more effective treatment, and prevention strategies. Amerigo Scientific offers a variety of cancer research products such as chemotherapeutic agents, anti-tumor drugs, drug precursors, and immunosuppressants.
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