Biofluids, also known as body fluids or biological fluids, are fluids in organisms, including saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, lymph, serous fluid, synovial fluid, bile, semen, vaginal secretion, breast milk, amniotic fluid, urine, and blood. The determination of the presence, concentration, or functional activity of analytes in biofluids is an important method for physiological or pathological research.
Blood is a complex matrix. Whole blood is composed of an aqueous matrix called plasma, as well as erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, and cell fragments suspended in the plasma. Plasma consists mainly of water and dissolved electrolytes, glucose, proteins, lipoproteins, triglycerides and cholesterol, and carbon dioxide. Serum is plasma without clotting factors. Whole blood, plasma, or serum can be detected for the biological monitoring, and the choice of a matrix depends on the analyte of interest and the analytical method used. Plasma can be separated from whole blood by centrifugation. The plasma is lighter and forms the upper yellow layer, while the denser blood cells fall on the bottom. Blood group AB plasma is popular because the plasma does not contain antibodies.
Saliva is a clear, slightly acidic complex biological fluid composed of secretions from the major salivary glands. Multi-component saliva is produced by combining water, salt, and abundant molecules from the blood with a mixture of salivary proteins in the oral cavity. Saliva has great potential as a tool for monitoring general health and disease. One of the main advantages is that saliva collection is simple and noninvasive, thus greatly reducing the discomfort associated with blood collection and the privacy concerns associated with urine collection.
Urine is a liquid produced by the kidneys, stored in the bladder, and excreted through the urethra. It is mainly composed of water, and the remaining components can be roughly divided into organic compounds, organic ammonium salts, inorganic salts, and urea. Urine holds great promise as a non-invasive biomarker for a variety of diseases. Urine contains a variety of biomolecules, including proteins, peptides, lipids, nucleic acids, and metabolites, which can be used as biomarkers for diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and kidney disease. Urine-based biomarkers offer several advantages over traditional blood-based biomarkers. Urine samples can be obtained noninvasively and are less affected by factors such as circadian rhythms, stress, and feeding. Furthermore, urine samples can be stored for long periods of time without significant degradation. In addition, urine composition can provide valuable insight into the metabolic state of the body.
Amerigo Scientific offers animal and human biofluids, such as whole blood, serum, plasma, urine, sweat, saliva, and sputum. Our products are collected under tightly controlled, highly standardized conditions for research or for assays supporting development and manufacturing.
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