Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) is the central molecule between the translation of protein-encoding DNA and the production of proteins by ribosomes in the cytoplasm. mRNA is essentially a complimentary copy of DNA and carries the genetic information in the nucleus to the ribosomes, where it serves as a template for protein synthesis. Each mRNA molecule contains non-coding sequences that may control the processing and reading mechanisms of the mRNA. In bacteria, mRNA is transcribed directly from DNA, and the untranslated region at the 5 'end of the mRNA chain (5' UTR) helps the mRNA bind to the ribosomes. In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is involved in mRNA synthesis. A precursor mRNA (the primary transcript) is first formed and then processed to produce the mature mRNA. The translation process and stability of mRNA are determined by specific regions of RNA, which are important for improving the durability of mRNA in cells. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic mRNAs contain three major regions. One of these three regions is the 5' UTR, which is a nucleotide sequence at the 5 'end of an mRNA and does not encode amino acids. The second region is the protein-coding region and consists of codons that determine the amino acid sequence. The third region, similar to the 5’UTR, is a non-coding nucleotide sequence at the 3 'end of an mRNA (3’ UTR). Modification of the 3’ UTR involves the process of polyadenylation, which forms a polyadenylated tail (called poly (A)). The poly (A) tail facilitates inhibition of deadenylation by nucleases, thereby improving stability and translation efficiency. The most commonly used methods of mRNA production are chemical synthesis and enzymatic production by in vitro transcription (IVT) of linearized plasmid DNA (pDNA) or PCR models.
mRNA is a key molecule in biological research, and one of its primary applications is the study of gene expression. The study of mRNA expression levels can be used to determine which genes are active in cells or tissues and the regulatory processes of these genes. By sequencing the mRNA, researchers can identify novel genes, study alternative splicing events, and explore the complexity of gene regulation. Due to its biological function as a template for protein synthesis, mRNA can be developed as vaccines and therapies to synthesize antigens or functional proteins in vivo. mRNA is also used to produce large quantities of proteins for research or commercial applications. New proteins with specific functions can be generated by manipulating the mRNA sequence. Amerigo Scientific offers high-quality synthetic mRNA products with great stability including mRNAs that can be efficiently translated into epidermal growth factors, apoptosis factors, cell lineage specific factors, or factor receptors.
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