Fluorophores also known as fluorescent dyes or reactive dyes, are small, organic natural or synthetic molecules that absorb light at a specific wavelength and re-emit it at a lower energy in the form of a photon upon excitation. Fluorophores can be used to label biologically relevant molecules. Compared with fluorescent proteins, fluorescent dyes have higher photostability and brightness and do not require maturation time. Fluorophores and dyes are commonly used for protein localization studies, organelle imaging, enzyme assays, fluorescence imaging and microscopy, spectroscopy, and immunochemistry. A large number of fluorophores have been developed and optimized for specific applications and instruments. Fluorophores used as dyes include fluorescein, Texas Red, the rhodamine family, etc. Common nucleic acid dyes include 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), Ethidium Bromide, Propidium iodide, Acridine Orange, etc. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), a derivative of fluorescein, is widely used in cell biology. 7-amino-actinomycin D (7-AAD) is an intercalating dye used as a fluorescent marker of DNA. Phalloidin is a peptide derived from Amanita phalloides that can be used to selectively label F-actin. In addition, quantum dots (QDs) are stable fluorophores for multicolor imaging, which are highly fluorescent synthetic nanocrystals made of semiconductor materials. Each fluorophore is unique, with different functionality, excitation and emission wavelengths, band shape and width, and photostability.
Attractive fluorophores often have the advantages of high sensitivity, wide linear dynamic range, low interference, and can be used for automated high throughput. To ensure the success of the experiment, the selection of a fluorophore suitable for a particular application among a wide range of fluorophores requires consideration of compatibility with the experimental design, compatibility with the equipment, and compatibility with other fluorescent materials in the sample. In multiple labeling experiments, the emission and excitation profiles of the selected fluorophore should not overlap with other fluorophores. Moreover, since many cellular components may emit fluorescence at the same wavelength as that of the selected dye or probe, it is also necessary to ensure that the signal from the selected dye can be clearly identified from the background autofluorescence. Amerigo Scientific offers a wide range of fluorophores, including traditional dyes, as well as novel dyes with better signals, less background in fluorescence-based assays, and minimal nonspecific binding. These fluorophores produce a great signal-to-noise ratio and minimal nonspecific binding, allowing high specificity and intensity for applications such as fluorescence imaging, flow cytometry, etc. We also offer our fluorophores conjugated to a variety of antibodies, streptavidin, peptides, proteins and other molecules.
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