Water is the most commonly used solvent in the laboratory, and it is often used for cleaning, preparation of buffers, blanks, controls, and mobile phase, and reagent reconstitution for many laboratory assays. Therefore, the use of pure water is critical for accurate, cost effective, and reliable analysis. Many contaminants may exist in the water, which include inorganic ions, organics, particles, colloids, bacteria, and gases. These contaminants may interfere with the detection and lead to inaccurate results. Bacteria or bacterial by-products such as alkaline phosphatase, nucleases, and pyrogen can interfere with many molecular biological assays such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), microarray, and cell culture, because these assays are highly sensitive to endotoxins and nucleases. Based on specific levels of bacterial content, ions, organics, pH, silica and particles in the water, the water can be classified into three grades, which are type I, II and III. This helps the researcher to select the appropriate water quality for a specific application. Ultrapure (Type I) water has the highest purity and is required for most sensitive and critical laboratory applications. Type I water can be made pyrogen-, nuclease-, bacteria-, and particulate-free for chromatographic analysis, cell and tissue culture, as well as genomics, proteomics, immunology and other life science research experiments. Pure (Type II) water is most widely used in general laboratory applications such as chemical and biochemical reagent preparation and glassware washing. It is also commonly used to feed Type I systems to create a comprehensive water system. Reverse osmosis (Type III) water is produced by removing up to 99% of the impurities in feed water using an economical method. Type III water is an excellent option for use in general laboratory equipment, such as water baths, humidifiers, and autoclaves, and can also be used for preparation of buffer and chemical reagents. There are currently different purification technologies that can remove contaminants from water to produce high quality purified water suitable for laboratory testing procedures. Commonly used purification techniques include electrodialysis, ultraviolet (UV) oxidation, ultrafiltration, microporous filtration, activated carbon filtration, distillation, deionization, and reverse osmosis. Reverse osmosis is an effective method that can remove most types of contaminants, such as ions, organics, colloids, particulates, and silica. Electrode deionization can remove ions from water and requires little maintenance. Ultrafiltration is a method of eliminating contaminants that cannot be removed by conventional filtration. Because of its small pores, ultrafiltration removes most particles, endotoxins, pyrogens, enzymes, microorganisms, and colloids, and ultrafiltration is the preferred method to remove ribonucleases, bacterial alkaline phosphatases and endotoxins.
Amerigo Scientific offers high-performance ultrapure, pure, and reverse osmosis laboratory water purification systems that are designed to suit your unique feed water conditions, application needs and functional requirements. Our systems produce high quality purified water to reliably support specific applications and general laboratory use.
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