Bioimaging is a multi-dimensional technique for the detection, visualization, and characterization of the morphological and biological processes. Among biological imaging techniques, fluorescence-based imaging is one of the most important techniques for studying biological systems because of its sensitivity, selectivity, and technical simplicity. A fluorophore is typically covalently attaching to the target molecule in a process called fluorescence labeling.

Fluorescent labels, also known as fluorescent tags or fluorescent probes can be used to visualize and even measure specific physiological parameters, cell or tissue structures, such as intracellular pH value, organelles, cytoplasmic ions, etc. Probes have the advantages of small size, easy operation, good chemical stability, minimal interference to the native function of the target, and high flexibility in molecular design and application. At the cellular level, the use of synthetic probes as labels not only achieves an in-depth understanding of the cellular structure, localization, and dynamic properties, but also investigates the bimolecular interactions in the intracellular environment. Ideally, the probe should be highly biocompatible and permeable without causing nonspecific interactions with non-target cellular apparatuses to allow undisturbed observation.

Amerigo Scientific offers a wide range of cell structure probes that allow the selective staining of specific organelles, membrane, or entire cells. These small organic stains have been widely used as counterstains to help identify the location of specific proteins and targets of interest. Our cell structure probes are organelle-specific stains designed for live-cell or fixed-cell labeling. EasyProbes™ reagents are ready-to-use cell imaging solutions that stain cells without calculation, dilution or pipetting. EasyProbes™ reagents are supplied in dropper bottles and are simple to use by adding 2 drops in per milliliter of cell suspension for imaging. Our products are compatible for cell imaging and flow cytometry.

Cell Structure Probes Selection Guide

Nuclear Stains

The nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle that consists of the nuclear envelope, nucleoli, and nuclear lamina. The nucleus is the site of gene expression and storage of genetic materials. Nuclear structure can be selectively visualized using nucleic acid stains. Our nucleic acid stains can be used to stain live or dead cells/tissues, providing a means to locate the nucleus and track nuclear changes throughout cellular processes from mitosis to apoptosis.

Product Name Ex/Em (nm) Applications
EasyProbe™ DAPI Fixed Cell Stain 358/461 Dead-cell stain; Chromosome and nuclear counterstain; Mycoplasma detection
EasyProbe™ Hoechst 33342 Live Cell Stain 350/461 Live-cell stain; Chromosome and nuclear counterstain; Cell-cycle studies
EasyProbe™ Propidium Iodide Dead Cell Stain 535/617 Dead-cell stain; Chromosome and nuclear counterstain
EasyProbe™ Green 488 Live Cell Stain 500/530 Live-cell stain; Chromosome and nuclear counterstain
EasyProbe™ Green 488 Dead Cell Stain 500/530 Dead-cell stain; Chromosome and nuclear counterstain
EMA (Ethidium monoazide) 504/600 Dead-cell stain; Photocrosslinkable
EthD-1 (Ethidium Homodimer-1) 528/617 Dead-cell stain; High-affinity DNA labeling
NucGreen™ live-cell nucleic acid stain 500/530 Live-cell stain; Chromosome and nuclear counterstain
NucGreen™ dead-cell nucleic acid stain 500/530 Dead-cell stain; Chromosome and nuclear counterstain
NucRed™ live-cell nucleic acid stain 640/660 Live-cell stain; Chromosome and nuclear counterstain
Acridine orange 500/526 (DNA)
460/650 (RNA)
Live-cell stain; Lysosome labeling; Cell-cycle studies
DRAQ5™ Fluorescent Probe 647/680 Live-cell stain; Nuclear counterstain; Cell-cycle studies

Membrane Stains

The cell membrane, also called the plasma membrane, separates the cell from the extracellular environment and plays an important role in cell signaling pathways as well as ionic homeostasis. Amerigo Scientific offers lipophilic dyes used as plasma membrane stains, which are useful markers for cell boundary.

Product Name Ex/Em (nm) Applications
DiO perchlorate 485/502 Plasma membrane stain
DiI perchlorate 550/565 Plasma membrane stain
DiD perchlorate 645/665 Plasma membrane stain
DiR iodide 750/778 Plasma membrane stain
Pluronic F-127® Solubilize reagent

Cytosol Stains

The cytosol, also known as cytoplasm, is the gelatinous liquid that fills the inside of a cell. It is composed of water, salts, and various organic molecules. Cytosol stains are mainly used to monitor cell morphology and location in cell proliferation and viability studies. Amerigo Scientific offers cell tracer dyes that can freely diffuse through the membranes of live cells, and become membrane-impermeant after loading. Our cell tracer dyes exhibit ideal properties, including stability and non-toxicity at working concentrations, bright fluorescence at physiological pH, and a wide emission spectrum that can be used for multicolor imaging.

Product Name Ex/Em (nm) Applications
Calcein blue, AM 360/449 Cell labeling; Cell tracker
Calcein, AM 494/515 Cell labeling; Cell tracker
BCECF 490/535 Cell labeling; pH indicator
BCECF, AM 490/535 Cell labeling; pH indicator
CFDA 490/520 Cell labeling; Cell tracker
CFDA, SE 490/520 Cell labeling; Cell tracker
CDCFDA 504/529 Cell labeling; Cell tracker
CDCFDA, SE 504/529 Cell labeling; Cell tracker
CellView Blue CMAC 353/466 Cell labeling; Cell tracker
Monobromobimane (mBBr) 385/463 Cell labeling; Cell tracker
CellView Green CMFDA 492/517 Cell labeling; Cell tracker

Mitochondria Stains

The mitochondria are membrane-bound organelles present in most eukaryotic cells, accounting for 10% of cell volume. The number of mitochondria in a cell can vary widely among organism, tissue, and cell type. The key function of mitochondria is to generate energy through oxidative phosphorylation and lipid oxidation. Amerigo Scientific provides mitochondria tracker probes that are selectively sequestered by mitochondria in live cells in a membrane potential-dependent way. These probes have a wide range of emission spectra for multicolor imaging.

Product Name Ex/Em (nm) Applications
MitoOrange™ CMTMRos 554/575 Mitochondria labeling
MitoRed™ CMXRos 579/600 Mitochondria labeling
Rhodamine 123 505/534 Mitochondria labeling
JC-1 514/529;585/590 Mitochondria labeling
DHR 123 [Dihydrorhodamine 123] Mitochondria labeling

Lysosome Stains

Lysosomes are membrane-bound cell organelles found in most animal cells. Lysosomes maintain acidic environment of about pH 4.5, and contain acid hydrolases that break down waste and cell debris. Amerigo Scientific offers LysoView probes that show pH dependence and their fluorescence intensity increases with increasing acidity.

Product Name Ex/Em (nm) Applications
LysoView Blue 370/425 Lysosome labeling
LysoView Green 443/505 Lysosome labeling

Golgi Stains

The Golgi apparatus is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. Proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates are prepared in the Golgi apparatus for cell secretion or use by other organelles within the cell. The Golgi apparatus contains a set of glycosylation enzymes that attach various sugar monomers to proteins to synthesize glycoproteins. Amerigo Scientific offers a cell-permeant probe that selectively stains the Golgi complex to study lipid metabolism and transport.

Product Name Ex/Em (nm) Applications
NBD C6-Ceramide 466/536 Golgi labeling

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stains

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a large membranous organelle that consists of membranous sheets and tubules. The ER plays a central role in lipid and protein synthesis, protein folding, and calcium homeostasis. Amerigo Scientific offers a cell-permeant probe that selectively stains the ER in live cells based on the probe concentration.

Product Name Ex/Em (nm) Applications
DiOC6(3) 485/500 ER labeling

Cytoskeleton Stains

The cytoskeleton is an intracellular matrix that supports cell shape and function. The cytoskeleton of eukaryotes is mainly composed of microfilaments (made of the protein actin), intermediate filaments, and microtubules (made of the protein tubulin). The cytoskeleton plays important roles in organelle transport, cell division, motility, and signaling, etc. Amerigo Scientific offers phalloidin conjugates to label actin in fixed and permeabilized cells with high selectivity, good photostability, and superior to antibody staining.

Product Name Ex/Em (nm) Applications
EasyProbe™ ActinGreen 488 Stain 500/525 Actin labeling
EasyProbe™ ActinRed 555 Stain 555/575 Actin labeling
ActinGreen™ 488 stain 500/520 Actin labeling
ActinRed™ 555 stain 555/575 Actin labeling

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