Membrane proteins are heterogeneous groups that include transporters, receptors and channel proteins, which have the characteristics of insertion into biological membranes. Membrane proteins account for about 30% of the total proteins encoded in the known genome, and about 70% of drugs target membrane proteins.

According to the nature of the membrane-protein interactions, membrane proteins can classified into two broad categories: peripheral (extrinsic) and integral (intrinsic). Integral membrane proteins are membrane-bound proteins that interact in whole or in part with the hydrophobic core of the phospholipid bilayer and can be removed from the membrane only by detergent extraction. Most integral proteins span the entire phospholipid bilayer. These transmembrane proteins contain one or more membrane-spanning domains, which are alpha (α) helices or multiple beta (β) strands. Peripheral membrane proteins do not interact with the hydrophobic core of the phospholipid bilayer. Instead, they are usually bound to the membrane indirectly by interactions with integral membrane proteins or directly by interactions with lipid polar head groups.

Problems existing in studies of membrane protein in vitro are the difficulties in obtaining large amounts of wild-type and mutant proteins from overexpression systems and maintaining protein solubility and function. Expression is usually in heterologous host organisms where the protein aggregates, or only a small amount of the protein inserts into the host membrane. Amerigo Scientific offers membrane protein folding tools to improve methods to solubilize and refold membrane protein aggregates, as well as to improve the targeting to host membranes. We also provide detergents/lipid membrane mimics to enable membrane proteins to be maintained folded state.

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Membrane Protein Folding Tools

  • Spin-column Membrane Protein Folding Screen Kit

The Spin-column Membrane Protein Folding Screen Kit is specifically designed for folding membrane proteins from urea-solubilized inclusion bodies or other protein aggregates. The kit is composed of 20 protein folding spin columns and Reagents A, B and C. The 20 spin-columns represent 20 different conditions with various detergents and lipids that form micelles and bicelles. The micellar and bicellar environments facilitate folding receptors, ion channels and other membrane proteins.

The folded protein samples from the screen kit are used for SDS-PAGE and activity tests. Based on the test results, the optimal condition (the column number) is selected for preparative folding. For scale-up folding of membrane proteins, please use the Large-scale Preparative Membrane Protein Folding Column Set.

Each Spin-column Membrane Protein Folding Screen Kit includes 160 µl of Reagent A, 160 µl of Reagent B, 1.1 ml of Reagent C and 20 prepacked spin-columns for 20 different protein folding conditions.

Product Name Cat. No. Size
Spin-column Membrane Protein Folding Screen Kit MFC01-20 Kit

  • Preparative Membrane Protein Folding Column Sets

The Preparative Membrane Protein Folding Column Sets are used for preparative membrane protein folding after the folding condition has been identified by the Spin-column Membrane Protein Folding Screen Kit. The column number represents the specific folding condition. Each Column Set includes 4 identical preparative protein folding columns and reagents for folding about 5 mg of urea -solubilized inclusion body proteins.

The Preparative Membrane Protein Folding Column Sets includes 5 ml of Reagent A or Reagent B, 8.4 ml of Reagent C, 15.4 ml of Solution S and 4 membrane protein folding columns. Reagent A is for column #1 to #10; Reagent B is for column #11-20.

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