Oligonucleotide Synthesis Devices

Nucleotides are complex molecules consisting of covalently linked nucleoside and phosphate groups. Oligonucleotides usually consist of up to 20 linked nucleotides. The synthesis of oligonucleotides requires strict control of temperature, pH, and substrate quality. Oligonucleotides can be synthesized by classical solid-phase chemical synthesis and alternative methods such as liquid-phase or enzymatic methods.

Solid-phase chemical synthesis usually requires polymers or specialized glass beads that are not affected by the reaction conditions. These glass beads can be packed in columns or plates through which reactants, reagents, and solvents flow. On the beads, substrate molecules are covalently bound to carry out the chemical reaction. The protection and deprotection of certain functional groups on the substrate molecule are key to ensuring that the desired products are synthesized. The synthesized products are removed by chemical reactions that break bonds with the underlying polymer beads. Solid-phase synthesis is an effective method to obtain purified products. However, solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis faces many challenges, such as decreasing yields with increasing nucleotide chain length, therefore several liquid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis methods and enzymatic synthesis methods have been developed as alternatives.

Synthetic oligonucleotides are widely used in research, diagnostics, and therapy. They are commonly used as probes and primers to confirm the presence of specific sequences in particular materials and to synthesize longer target DNA or RNA strands, respectively. In addition, the therapeutic oligonucleotides can prevent the expression of undesirable or overactive gene sequences that may cause or promote disease.

Oligonucleotide synthesis is critical for genomics research, molecular diagnostics, drug discovery, and bioengineering. Amerigo Scientific offers high-performance systems and accessories for efficient oligonucleotide synthesis.

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