Water Purification Systems

Water is an important component of many laboratory applications, and its purity can significantly affect experimental results. Laboratory water purification systems are an important laboratory infrastructure that removes impurities such as ions, organics, and microorganisms from water through multiple filtration and purification steps.

Laboratory water purification systems typically include five modules, they are pretreatment module, reverse osmosis (RO) membrane, deionization (DI) resin, ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, and ultrafiltration (UF) membrane. The pretreatment module usually includes activated carbon filters to remove residual chlorine, organic matter, and odors from the water, water softening resins to remove hardness ions such as calcium and magnesium from the water, and sand and gravel filters to remove larger particles of impurities. The RO membrane is used to effectively remove most ions, organics, and microorganisms from the water through semi-permeable membrane technology. The function of DI resin enables the removal of cations such as sodium, calcium, and magnesium as well as the removal of anions such as chloride and sulfate by ion exchange. UV light produced by UV disinfection systems can destroy bacteria and viruses in water. UF membranes ultimately ensure water purity through sieving and electrostatic action.

Several international quality standards for purified laboratory water are well-established, the most widely used of which are the ASTM D1193 standard established by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the ISO 3696 standard developed by the International Organization (ISO). ASTM classifies purified laboratory water into three different types, with Type I being the highest purification. The ISO standard divides purified laboratory water into two categories, including Type I and Type II. The Type I of ISO standard includes ASTM Type I and Type II, while Type II of the ISO standard includes ASTM Type III. ASTM Type I is used for analytical experiments with stringent requirements with particle requirements, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, gas chromatography (GC) analysis, mass spectrometry, ion chromatography (IC) analysis, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. ASTM Type II is used for inorganic trace analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy experiments. ASTM Type III is generally used for experiments with fewer requirements for water purity, such as chemical analysis tests, solution preparation, cell culture, and equipment cleaning.

Laboratory water purification systems play an important role in ensuring the quality and reliability of experimental results. Amerigo Scientific offers high-quality water purification systems to meet customer requirements for various laboratory applications and international quality standards.

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